Developing an Integrated Reentry and Employment Strategy

This page is designed to help corrections, workforce, and reentry program administrators and practitioners understand how to develop integrated reentry and employment programs. Policymakers can also use this page to learn about how to make smart resource allocation decisions when investing in reentry and employment programs.

The White Paper   


Description: Tom Stickrath

Integrated Reentry and Employment Strategies: Reducing Recidivism and Promoting Job Readiness

The white paper was developed to help program administrators and practitioners navigate the complex issues related to coordinated planning and service delivery. The white paper provides guidance on how to develop integrated reentry and employment strategies using a resource allocation and service-matching tool.  

To browse or download an online version of the report, click on the cover at left. Click here for more information on the white paper.


Related Tools and Resources

Select a topic area below to access tools and resources that can help a policymaker or practitioner implement the strategies discussed in the white paper.

Starting a planning process

Planning is a critical phase for employment initiatives; it is the opportunity to review data, select a service delivery model, define partnerships, and seek input from stakeholders. Perhaps most importantly, the planning phase provides an opportunity to analyze the experiences of other initiatives, in order to replicate their successes and avoid their missteps. These resources include guides for program design and examples of comprehensive plans for employment initiatives serving people reentering communities from incarceration.

Reentry Law Project Small Business Toolkit
Source:
City Bar Justice Center (April, 2009).
Available at:
 http://www2.nycbar.org/citybarjusticecenter/pdf/Reentry_Toolkit_April09.pdf
Summary:
Targeted toward New York City residents returning from incarceration, this toolkit provides an overview of legal issues that may come up for persons with criminal convictions who want to start a new business or move forward with a business they already have begun.  The toolkit starts with an explanation of the laws that prohibit employment discrimination based on criminal records and provides tips for getting identification documents and applying for certificates of rehabilitation. It then sets out steps for planning and starting a business, and for applying for necessary licenses.  This toolkit provides broadly applicable information about financial literacy and drafting a business plan.
Keywords: New York City; New York; business; entrepreneur; business plan.

Management Support Unit (MSU) Information Sheet 25: Strategic Planning
Source: NCOSS
Available at:

http://www.sectorconnect.org.au/assets/pdf/resources/resourcepg/governance/25-Strategic-Planning.pdf
Summary: This informational guide explains the process of strategic planning. It defines the concept, examines concerns and barriers to effective planning, and outlines the benefits and the process of achieving an effective strategic plan.
Keywords: Strategic planning, analysis, management

Prisoner Reentry: What Works, What Does Not, and What is Promising
Source: Crime and Delinquency
Available at: http://jthomasniu.org/class/Temp/reentry11.pdf
Summary: Using the Maryland Scale of Scientific Method the authors determine the effectiveness of different program categories for reentry. They conclude that many of the programs studied are successful at aiding reentry and reducing recidivism. Vocational training and workforce development programming showed some of the most promising results.
Keywords: promising practices, prisoner reentry, recidivism

The MPRI Model: Policy Statement and Recommendations
Source: Michigan Prisoner Reentry Initiative
Available at: http://www.michigan.gov/documents/THE_MPRI_MODEL_1005_140262_7.pdf
Summary: This guide gives in-depth descriptions of the Michigan Prisoner Reentry Initiative Model. It includes descriptions of the different planning stages including case management and transition accountability planning. This tool can be useful for organizations starting their own reentry programs or for organizations looking to make changes to their mission, goals, and/or principles.
Keywords: reentry initiative, planning, transition accountability plan, model, community

Reentry: Helping Former Prisoners Return to Communities
Source: Annie E. Casey Foundation
Available at:
http://www.aecf.org/upload/publicationfiles/ir2980d32.pdf
Summary:  This guide for the Annie E. Casey Foundation’s “Making Connections” sites is written to give site teams and local partners a way to think about and work toward reducing the negative outcomes of incarceration in their communities. After introducing and giving a background to Making Connections, the paper describes potential opportunities and challenges that these communities may face and how to address them. The paper also gives detailed descriptions of promising approaches that have been proven to work in communities. The last section of the paper is a resource section, which includes descriptions and contact information for organizations which are helpful and committed to the strategies described throughout the paper.
Keywords: promising approaches, reentry, families, communities, policy recommendations

Recommended Basic Data Collection Elements for TJ Programs
Source: National Transitional Jobs Network and National League of Cities
Available at:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/59497970/Recommended-Data-Collection-Elements
Summary: This memorandum contains ten recommended basic data collection elements for transitional jobs programs. The different elements are defined so program planners can understand and implement the recommendations. These data collection techniques are very useful for a program to understand its operations and performance in order to make informed management decisions. Program evaluation can help identify the outcomes and benefits of the programs, which is often important to funders and donors.
Keywords: data collection, design elements, planning

Building Knowledge About Successful Prisoner Reentry Strategies
Source: MDRC
Available at: http://www.mdrc.org/sites/default/files/Reentry_020113.pdf
Summary: This memo was created to provide policymakers with important information regarding prisoner reentry strategies.  In response to increasing prison costs, many state and federal agencies have taken on new prisoner reentry initiatives. In this memo MDRC describes what has worked so far and what more needs to be done for continued reentry programming success.
Keywords: transitional jobs, reentry, risk-needs-responsivity

Administrative Guide: Offender Workforce Development Specialist Partnership Training Program
Author(s): National Institute of Corrections
Source: National Association of Workforce Development Professionals
Available at: http://static.nicic.gov/Library/024759.pdf
Summary: This administrative guide gives an overview of the Offender Workforce Development Specialist (OWDS) Partnership Training. In addition to describing the benefits and requirements of the program it also provides information needed to make decisions about the application process for potential participants and how to select a qualified, multidisciplinary group of trainees.
Keywords: OWDS, administrative, training, application process

Making the Juvenile Justice Workforce System Connection for Re-Entering Young Offenders
Source: Center for Law and Social Policy
Available at: http://www.clasp.org/admin/site/publications/files/0329.pdf
Summary: This guidebook was created to advise communities interested in strengthening or creating their connections between the workforce and justice systems. The information in the guide is based on two surveys and several site visits. The guide breaks down different challenges that often arise when developing workforce and justice system connections. It gives advice on each challenge and examples of how cities dealt with the challenge.
Keywords: employment, juvenile, criminal justice system, workforce

From Prison to Work: A Proposal for a National Prisoner Reentry Program
Source: Brookings/ The Hamilton Project
Available at: http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/papers/2008/12/prison%20to%20work%20western/12_prison_to_work_western.pdf
Summary: This paper is a proposal by Bruce Western for a national prisoner reentry program. The core element of the proposed program would be up to a year of transitional job training for all parolees in need of work. Western includes a cost and benefit analysis that shows the program’s costs would be offset by the increase in employment and reduction of crime.
Keywords: transitional jobs, reentry, employment, case study

Ready4Reentry: Prisoner Reentry Toolkit for Faith-Based and Community Organizations
Source: U.S. Department of Labor
Available at:  http://www.doleta.gov/PRI/PDF/Pritoolkit.pdf
Summary:  The Ready4Reentry Toolkit is a collection of practices and tools for small to mid-sized faith-based and community organizations (FBCOs) involved or anticipating involvement in prisoner reentry based on the experience of successful reentry program.  This toolkit explores the building blocks of a successful reentry program and provides examples of promising practices drawn from Ready4Work Prisoner Reentry Demonstration sites. This toolkit is meant to assist FBCOs in establishing effective case management, mentoring, and job training and placement services in their reentry curriculum. Forming community partnerships and adopting effective recruiting practices are also covered in the toolkit.  The toolkit features examples of useful program documents such as applications, forms, agreements, and flyers.
Keywords:  Sample documents; faith-based organizations; community organizations; program planning; program design; promising practices; Ready4Work Prisoner Reentry Demonstration; demonstration; case management; mentoring; job training; job placement. 

Four Principles of Employment Reentry       
Source: Northwestern University School of Law
 Available at:
http://www.law.northwestern.edu/legalclinic/prison/documents/EmploymentReentry.pdf
Summary:  This brief document presents four research- and observation-based principles for developing powerful and successful employment/reentry program models.  A quick, useful resource.    
Keywords:   Program models; principles; private enterprise; diversion; economic development.

Know the characteristics of your service population

What are the demographics of people seeking work after incarceration? What barriers do they face, and what skills, experiences, and strengths can they bring to the job-seeking process? In order to design and implement effective programs, we must understand who will access the services and what their needs are. These resources provide valuable insight into the characteristics of individuals looking for work while reentering communities from incarceration, in order to better inform employment program design and delivery.

Sequencing Disadvantage: Barriers to Employment facing Young Black and White Men with Criminal Records.
Source: Princeton University Library
Available at:  http://www.communityalternatives.org/pdf/employers/Pager-Barriers-to-Employment.pdf
Summary:  This article reports the results of a largescale field experiment investigating the effects of race and a prison record on employment. Teams of black and white men were matched and sent to apply for low-wage jobs, presenting equivalent résumés and differing only in their race and criminal background. The authors find a significant negative effect of a criminal record on employment outcomes that appears substantially larger for African Americans.  The results suggest that black applicants are less often invited to interview and thus have fewer opportunities to establish rapport with the employer, which appears to be an important aspect of securing work. 
Keywords: Race; criminal record; discrimination; low-wage labor markets; field study

Support for States Employability Standards in CTE and Adult Education
Source: Office of Vocational and Adult Education, U.S. Department of Education
Available at: http://cte.ed.gov/employabilityskills/
Summary: This web-based resource provides consolidated information on employability skills to form a centralized clearinghouse that helps inform the instruction and assessment of these skills. Information on this site, compiled from a variety of sources, represents a common understanding of employability skills supported throughout the U.S. government.
Keywords: assessment tool, employability, job readiness

Understanding the Challenges of Prisoner Reentry: Research Findings from the Urban Institute’s Prisoner Reentry Portfolio
Source: The Urban Institute
Available at:
http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/411289_reentry_portfolio.pdf 
Summary:
In 2000, the Justice Policy Center at the Urban Institute launched an ongoing investment in prisoner reentry research to better understand the pathways of successful reintegration, the social and fiscal costs of current policies, and the impacts of incarceration and reentry on individuals, families, and communities. This document provides an overview of some of the key dimensions of prisoner reentry and highlights the Urban Institute’s original research across these topics. In addition, it points to recent and relevant reports published by the Urban Institute that provide more in-depth research and related findings. This paper provides excellent data on the characteristics of individuals returning from incarceration.
Keywords:
Urban Institute; reintegration; public policy; health; employment; housing; substance use; families; communities

Skills and Interests Assessment Tool Comparison
Source: Illinois WorkNet Center
Available at: http://www.illinoisworknet.com/NR/rdonlyres/14A122C6-16C1-470A-BBC3-96AA6D3CBB34/0/AssessmentToolComparisonVer5.pdf
Summary: This guide gives a description of different skills and interests assessment tools. It also shows these tools in an easy-to-use comparison chart.  The guide includes descriptions and a comparison chart for basic skills assessment tools.
Keywords: assessment tool, skills, guide, evaluation

'Redemption' in an Era of Widespread Criminal Background Checks
Source: 
National Institute of Justice (NIJ) Journal
Available at:  https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/226872.pdf
Summary:
Currently, employers lack empirical guidance on when it might be considered safe to overlook a past criminal record when hiring a formerly incarcerated individual.  In this study, the authors use statistical analysis to estimate a point in time when an individual with a criminal record is at no greater risk of committing another crime than other individuals of the same age.  Although the research findings are preliminary, the authors assert that their analysis provides the criminal justice community with the first scientific method for estimating how long is “long enough” for someone with a prior record to remain arrest-free before he or she should be considered “redeemed” by a prospective employer. This article discusses the public policy implications of the findings.
Keywords: Public policy; evidence; empirical evidence; scientific method; data; prospective employer; criminal record.

Collateral Costs: Incarceration’s Effect on Economic Mobility
Source:
The Pew Charitable Trusts
Available at:
http://csgjusticecenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/2010-Pew.pdf  http://www.fordschool.umich.edu/research/pdf/foc221-part3-danziger.pdf.
Summary:
This report focuses on the intersection of incarceration and mobility and seeks to answer to what extent incarceration creates lasting barriers to economic progress for formerly incarcerated individuals, their families, and their children and how these barriers impact economic mobility.  Collateral Costs finds that incarceration carries significant and enduring economic repercussions for the remainder of a formerly incarcerated person’s working years, and quantifies the costs of those repercussions on former offenders, their families, and their children. This report also outlines ways to reduce the productivity losses associated with serving time in jail or prison, including proactively reconnecting former inmates to the labor market through education and training, job search and placement support, and follow-up services. 
Keywords: Economic mobility; incarceration; barriers; children; intergenerational

Collateral Costs: Incarceration’s Effect on Economic Mobility
Source: Pew Charitable Trusts
Available at: http://www.pewtrusts.org/uploadedFiles/wwwpewtrustsorg/Reports/Economic_Mobility/Collateral%20Costs%20FINAL.pdf?n=5996
Summary: This report examines the effects of incarceration on economic mobility. The authors discuss incarceration's lasting negative impacts on employment, earnings, and mobility, as well as the intergenerational impacts of incarceration on the children of prisoners. The piece concludes with policy recommendations for promoting economic mobility while reducing incarceration rates.
Keywords: incarceration, employment, earnings, wages, mobility

Final Technical Report: Neighborhoods, Recidivism, and Employment Among Returning Prisoners
Source: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice
Available at:
https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/236436.pdf
Summary: This paper explores the associations between the neighborhood context to which an individual returns from incarceration and outcomes in recidivism and employment. Using longitudinal data from individuals released on parole from Michigan prisons, the authors find that returning to a more disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with a greater likelihood of returning to prison, less employment, and lower wages. Returning to a more affluent neighborhood is associated with a lower likelihood of recidivism, more employment and higher wages. They also found that being employed is associated with lower risk of recidivism.
Keywords: disadvantaged neighborhoods, neighborhood context, recidivism, employment

Get the Facts: Dispelling the Myths about Ex-Offenders Webinar
Source: National Association of Workforce Development Professionals
Available at:
http://www.nawdp.org/Content/NavigationMenu/WorkforceDevelopment/eLearning/Dispelling_the_Myths.htm
Summary: During this hour and half long webinar, the presenter describes the history and the importance of the myth busters on reentry that the Federal Interagency Reentry Council created. The different myths are highlighted and then busted with the facts. These myth busters can be used to engage employers and keep them informed on the true facts about hiring someone who is released from prison.
Keywords: myth busters, reentry, employer, policy, laws

Investigating Prisoner Reentry: The Impact of Conviction Status on the Employment Prospects of young Men
Source: National Institute of Justice
Available at: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/228584.pdf
Summary: Based on a three-part study looking at barriers men with criminal men face, the authors looked at how employers view job applicants with criminal records. They were able to find significant evidence that a criminal record hurt an applicant’s ability to obtain employment. The paper concludes with policy implications and recommendations of these findings.
Keywords: employment, criminal record, employers, policy

Can We Close the Revolving Door? Recidivism vs. Employment of Ex-Offenders in the U.S.
Source: Urban Institute
Available at: http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410857_freeman.pdf
SummaryThis paper summarizes the basic facts about the characteristics of prisoners and individuals returning home from incarceration, the rate of recidivism in recent years, and the skill deficits and employer decisions that limit the employment prospects of returning citizens. This paper also stresses the medical problems-mental illness, physical ailments, and addictions-that afflict many prisoners, which help explain the high rate of recidivism and correspondingly modest effects of rehabilitation programs.
Keywords:  Population characteristics; skill deficits; employment prospects; labor market; mental illness; physical illness; addiction; medical problems.

Employment Barriers Facing Ex-Offenders  
Author(s): Harry J. Holzer, Steven Raphael, Michael A. Stoll
Source: The Urban Institute, 2003
Available at: http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410855_holzer.pdf
Summary: This paper reviews the evidence on employment and earnings for formerly incarcerated individuals and considers barriers that may limit these individuals’ employment opportunities, discussing “supply side” barriers (e.g., the attitudes and characteristics of formerly incarcerated individuals) and “demand side” barriers (e.g., laws that forbid the hiring of individuals with felony convictions for certain occupations).  This paper concludes with policy recommendations to reduce employment barriers faced by formerly incarcerated individuals, thereby improving their employment and earnings opportunities.
Keywords: Barriers; barriers to employment; supply side; demand side; policy; policy recommendations.

Ex-offenders and the Labor Market
Source: Center for Economic and Policy Research;
Available at: http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/ex-offenders-2010-11.pdf
Summary:
This paper discusses the impact of incarceration on labor market outcomes for formerly incarcerated individuals.  This paper estimates the size of the formerly incarcerated population and provides information on this population’s demographics.  The paper outlines different research methodologies that have been used to isolate the labor-market effects of prison time and felony convictions.  To conclude, the paper assesses the likely impact of incarceration on employment outcomes for formerly incarcerated individuals and, in turn, on the U.S. economy.
Keywords: Employment; labor market; GDP; cost of incarceration; U.S. economy; demographics

From Prison to Work: The Employment Dimensions of Prisoner Reentry Source: Urban Institute
Available at:
http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/411097_From_Prison_to_Work.pdf
Summary:
This report addresses the relationship between work and reentry, outlining the links between employment and variety of post-release outcomes.  Next, the report describes the (pre-recession) labor market, identifying the gap that formerly incarcerated individuals could potentially fill.  The report details the skill sets, education levels, work histories, and health-related needs of formerly incarcerated individuals.  The paper also examines the past and current state of work inside prisons, identifying the possible benefits of inmate labor and prison programming aimed at enhancing post-release employment opportunities. The report then looks at the opportunities for-and the legal barriers to-employment following release. Finally, the document identifies key considerations to meet the goals of enhancing work opportunities available to prisoners and expanding post-release work opportunities.
Keywords: Post-release employment; demographics; work inside prison; legal barriers; policy; research

Providing employment services that incorporate effective strategies

The long-term viability of any reentry employment initiative depends on its ability to measure and communicate its effectiveness in order to sustain its financial support. These resources have been compiled to help gather data and evaluate program efficacy, provide examples of strong program evaluations, and provide guidance for achieving sustainable program funding.

Transitional Jobs: A Workforce Strategy for Cities
Source: National League of Cities - YEF Institute
Available at:
http://www.nlc.org/documents/Find%20City%20Solutions/IYEF/Family%20Economic%20Success/transitional-jobs-workforce-strategy-cs-2006.pdf
Summary: This paper looks at ten cities that developed transitional jobs programs with the help of The National League of Cities’ YEF Institute. YEF set out to assist municipal leaders with the creation of high quality transitional jobs programs in their cities. After reviewing the ten cities, the paper concludes with the lessons learned from these cities that can be used to build future transitional jobs programs.
Keywords: transitional jobs, case studies, families, communities, employment, municipal leaders

Getting and Keeping a Job: Best Practices for Employment Retention and Advancement
Source: National Transitional Jobs Network
Available at: http://www.scribd.com/doc/59499220/Getting-Keeping-a-Job-Best-Practices-for-Employment-Retention-and-Advancement
Summary: Job retention and advancement are an important part of employment for the hard-to-employ. In order for programs to be successful at this, they need to be well-designed and well-supported by the organizations that implement them. This best practice brief highlights the keys to successful retention and advancement programing.
Keywords: employment, case management, incentives, employers, job retention

Tips for Working with Noncustodial Fathers
Source: National Transitional Jobs Network
Available at:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/58855103/Tips-for-Working-with-Noncustodial-Fathers
Summary: This best practice brief looks at different components for transitional jobs programs to build into their system to account for fatherhood programing.  These key components include: help participants manage child support obligations, focus on effective recruitment, and provide or identify a partner to incorporate responsible fatherhood programming.
Keywords: noncustodial fathers, transitional jobs, child support, employment, recruitment, responsible fatherhood, program spotlight, best practices

Tips for Working with Jobseekers Newly Released from Prison
Source: National Transitional Jobs Network
Available at:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/58856257/Tips-for-Working-with-Jobseekers-Newly-Released-from-Prison
Summary: People who have been recently released from prison face many barriers to employment. This best practice brief highlights some of these barriers and suggests ways that service providers can help these jobseekers overcome their barriers. Some of
the key practices include transitional jobs, mentoring, job readiness training, and more.
Keywords: transitional jobs, parole, child support, job readiness, mentor, criminal record, documents and records, employers, partnerships, best practices

Transitional Jobs Program Design Elements
Source: National Transitional Jobs Network
Available at: http://www.scribd.com/doc/59499221/Transitional-Jobs-Program-Design-Elements
Summary: This introductory guide describes the essential components of a transitional jobs program. It details the different program components and best practices for implementing each element. This guide can be used by organizations that are planning to start a transitional jobs program and also by organizations that already have a program and want to fully adopt the transitional jobs model according to evidence-based principles.
Keywords: transitional jobs, case management, training, education, subsidized employment, planning, job readiness, assessment

Transitional Jobs Program Implementation and Best Practices
Source: National Transitional Jobs Network
Available at:  http://www.scribd.com/doc/95336434/Transitional-Jobs-Program-Implementation-and-Best-Practices
Summary: This PowerPoint presentation gives an overview of the goals, components, and outcomes of transitional jobs programs. The presentation defines transitional jobs as a workforce strategy designed to overcome employment obstacles by using time-limited, wage paying jobs that combine real work development and supportive services to transition participants successfully into the labor market.
Keywords: transitional jobs, employment barriers, program planning, employers, case management, developmental experience, outcomes, best practices

Effective Job Development Strategies for Working with the Hardest to Employ
Source: National Transitional Jobs Network
Available at:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/58858612/Effective-Job-Development-Strategies-for-Working-with-the-Hardest-to-Employ
Summary: Effective job development is an essential part of successful transitional jobs programs. This best practice brief combines recommendations from available research, program evaluations, and experts in the field to highlight the keys to effective job development programming. These keys include program planning and implementation, employer engagement, and continually evaluating job development success. 
Keywords: job development, program planning, employer engagement, transitional jobs, assessment

Ensuring that the Transitional Job is a Developmental Experience
Source: National Transitional Jobs Network
Available at: http://www.scribd.com/doc/61239699/Ensuring-that-the-Transitional-Job-is-a-Developmental-Experience
Summary: Ensuring that the transitional job is a developmental experience should be a top priority of TJ programs. Making the transitional job a developmental experience differentiates it from an ordinary subsidized employment program. Developmental objectives include: developing work-readiness “soft-skills,” training for “hard-skills,” and helping individuals who have been disconnected from work for a prolonged period view themselves as workers, building their confidence.
Keywords: transitional jobs, job development, peer support, communications, case studies, peer mentoring

Transitional Jobs for Ex-Prisoners Implementation, Two-Year Impacts, and Costs of the Center for Employment Opportunities (CEO) Prisoner Reentry Program
Source: MDRC
Available at: http://www.mdrc.org/sites/default/files/full_592.pdf
Summary: This report presents the results of the evaluation of the Center for Employment Opportunities. While the results yielded some disappointing findings in regard to long-term employment impacts, the results did show that CEO reduced recidivism during the first and second year of the study period.   This study also provides insight into the design of future transitional jobs programs.
Keywords: employment, case management, transitional jobs, employment, reentry

Program Assistant Job Description
Source:
Heartland Alliance for Human Needs and Human Rights
Available at: http://www.scribd.com/doc/59498335/Sample-Job-Description-Program-Assistant
Summary: This document is a sample job description for a program assistant and includes details about the essential duties and responsibilities, qualifications, competencies, and physical demands that are required for this job.
Keywords:  job description, program assistant, program planning, qualifications

Title: Vocational Literacy Instructor - Teacher IV Job Description
Source: Heartland Alliance for Human Needs and Human Rights
Category:
Providing Targeted Employment Services
Available at: http://www.scribd.com/doc/59498332/Sample-Job-Description-Vocational-Literacy-Instructor
Keywords: job description, instructor, teacher, program planning, qualifications
Summary: This document is a sample job description for a vocational literacy instructor and includes details about the essential duties and responsibilities, qualifications, competencies, and physical demands that are required for this job.
Keywords: job description, instructor, teacher, program planning, qualifications

More Than a Job: Final Results from the Evaluation of the Center for Employment Opportunities (CEO) Transitional Jobs Program
Source: Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation (OPRE)
Available at:  
http://www.aecf.org/~/media/Pubs/Topics/Special%20Interest%20Areas/Incarceration%20and%20Reentry/MoreThanaJobFinalResultsfromtheEvaluationoftheCenterforEmployment/MoreThanaJob.pdf
Summary: This report presents the final results of the evaluation of the Center for Employment Opportunities (CEO). One of the most positive results found was that CEO significantly reduced recidivism, while being most effective for people who enrolled shortly after being released from prison. These findings can be used to help plan future transitional jobs programs and encourage enrollment in such programs as soon as possible upon release from prison. The study also did a benefit-cost analysis and found that the benefits of the transitional jobs program outweighed the costs, saving significant money for taxpayers.
Keywords: transitional jobs, evaluation, recidivism, employment, benefit-cost analysis, service receipt, policy, rigorous study, random assignment

Supporting Second Chances: Employment Strategies for Reentry Programs
Source: Public/Private Ventures  (P/PV)
Available at: http://www.issuelab.org/click/download1/supporting_second_chances_employment_strategies_for_reentry_programs Summary: This paper is focused on different employment strategies that are commonly used by reentry programs. The three main program strategies that they analyze are: services aimed at help people find immediate employment, services that provide paid job experiences to participants, and services that help people gain occupational skills. For each of these strategies the authors provide an overview of the strategies along with research and examples of the approach.
Keywords: employment strategies, Second Chance Act, funds, recidivism, paid work, occupational training, transitional jobs, child support, income support, case study

Business Service Representative Job Description
Source: Heartland Alliance for Human Needs and Human Rights
Available at: http://www.scribd.com/doc/59498333/Sample-Job-Description-Business-Services-Representative
Summary: This document is a sample job description of a business service representative.
Keywords: Job description, business service representative

Clinical Case Manager - Workforce Development Reentry
Source: Heartland Alliance for Human Needs and Human Rights
Category:
Providing Targeted Employment Services
Available at: http://www.scribd.com/doc/59498338/Sample-Job-Description-Clinical-Case-Manager
Summary: This document is a sample job description for a clinical case manager.
Keywords: Job description, case manager

One Stop Innovations Leading Change Under the WIA One-Stop System
Source: Center for Workforce Development
Available at:
http://www.heldrich.rutgers.edu/sites/default/files/content/PromisingPracticesFullReport.pdf Summary: This report looks at promising practices for WIA One-Stop systems. The authors look at 25 different locations and disseminate what practices they are doing that will be benefit other One-Stop locations. They break the lessons into three categories: services provided to job seekers, services to employers, and One-Stop design and management. The lessons they find can be replicated for success at other locations.
Keywords: one-stop shop, one-stop systems, management, WIA, example locations, universal access, integrating programs, integrating systems, case studies

Serving the Employment Needs of Justice-Involved Juveniles and Adults: A Primer for Treatment and Recovery Support Service Providers
Source: Center for Substance Abuse Treatment
Available at: http://hirenetwork.org/sites/default/files/SAMHSA_Guide_3-08.pdf
Summary: This guide provides an overview of the unique issues people in recovery with criminal records face when seeking jobs or access to higher education.  It includes information specifically on employment discrimination laws, criminal record legal barriers to employment, higher education, background checks, rehabilitation, using federal and state financial incentives, job application and interview techniques, and job retention. The author concludes by emphasizing that employment is an important part of the individual’s journey for independence, self-reliance, and self-esteem and that by following their recommendations providers can help them along this journey.
Keywords: employment discrimination, criminal record, higher education, job application, job retention, federal funds, state funds  

Rethinking Prison Education in the Era of Mass Incarceration
Source: City University of New York
Available at: www.jjay.cuny.edu/extra/speeches/UFS_Prison_Education_speech.pdf
Summary: This keynote address at the University Faculty Senate Conference on Higher Education in Prison focuses on the fact that incarcerated individuals have very limited opportunities to the education that others in the United States are freely offered.  Jeremy Travis argues that education has the power to transform lives and needs to be better incorporated into the prison system. Creating the bridge between prison programs and community programs is key in fostering this motivation towards education as a way for incarcerated individuals to return to society as productive contributing members.
Keywords: prison education, college credit, educational profile, educational programs, post-secondary education

Prison Postsecondary Education: Bridging Learning from Incarceration to the Community
Source:  The Prisoner Reentry Institute at the John Jay College of Criminal Justice and The Urban Institute
Available at: http://www.urban.org/projects/reentry-roundtable/upload/Contardo.pdf
Summary: This paper focuses on prison postsecondary education programming. These programs address factors that contribute to incarceration and assist with reintegration into society by providing credit and non-credit college-level courses to inmates before their release from prison. The paper also includes a section on recommended program features that help improve reentry outcomes.
Keywords: post-secondary education, education programs, community college, certificates, degrees, funding, public relations

On-the-Job Training (OJT) Federal Regulation Requirements under Workforce Investment Act (WIA)
Source: Workforce One
Available at: http://www.doleta.gov/layoff/pdf/OJT_REQ.pdf
Summary: This informational guide is for Workforce Investment Act On-the-Job Training (OJT) administrators and monitoring staff to use when implementing or reviewing OJT as a training option. Administrators should assure that policies and procedures are in place to ensure compliance with these requirements. This document includes information on eligibility for OJT, employer eligibility, and the OJT contract.
Keywords: On-the-job training, WIA, funding, eligibility

Mythbuster about Federal Student Aid
Source: Federal Interagency Council
Available at:
http://csgjusticecenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Reentry_Council_Mythbuster_Student_Financial_Aid.pdf Summary: This fact sheet breaks down the myths about incarcerated individuals’ ability to obtain federal student aid. For the most part, restrictions on federal student aid eligibility are removed for formerly incarcerated individuals, including those on probation, on parole, or residing in a halfway house.
Keywords: criminal record, student aid, federal

Offender Workforce a Development Services Make an Impact
Source: National Institute of Corrections
Available at:
static.nicic.gov/Library/025219.pdf
Summary: This study looked at the impact that offender workforce development (OWD) has on offenders’ ability to find employment post-incarceration. They found that OWD participants had decreased likelihood of recidivism. The impact was stronger on moderate and high risk offenders than low risk offenders.
Keywords: recidivism, workforce development, drug and alcohol abuse

Inside the Black Box: What Makes Workforce Development Programs Successful?
Source: University of Chicago
Available at: http://www.chapinhall.org/sites/default/files/Inside%20the%20Black%20Box_04_23_12_0.pdf Summary: It is important to understand why employment programs are successful at placing people into employment especially during periods of high unemployment rates. This study uses several successful programs in Chicago as examples for explaining how to achieve success and how these methods may be measured to help improve the system.
Keywords: literature review, data systems, program examples, workforce development, data management, families, job placement, funding, external engagement

Leading Best Practices in US Prisoner Re-entry Employment Programs Source: Safer Foundation
Available at: http://www.saferfoundation.org/files/documents/US-EU%20Delegation%20Extended%20Website%20Presentation.pdf
Summary: After providing a background about the Safer Foundation-an organization committed to reducing recidivism by supporting the efforts of people with criminal records to become employed, law-abiding members of the community-and Illinois incarceration trends, this presentation highlights “what’s working” in reentry, including green job development; social enterprise; and criminal justice diversion programs.
Keywords:  Recidivism; green jobs; social enterprise; diversion programs; criminal justice diversion models; best practices.

New Ideas and Innovative Approaches to Employment Related Reentry Programming
Source:  Northwestern University School of Law
Available at: http://www.law.northwestern.edu/legalclinic/prison/documents/Innovative.pdf
Summary:  This document presents several innovative employment programs currently being run by the Illinois Department of Corrections (IDOC) and provides suggestions for how to improve and scale up these programs.  The information contained in this report could be useful for other jurisdictions that are working to build employment into corrections programming in order to prepare prisoners for reentry.  
Keywords:  Department of Corrections; corrections; program development; scale; funding; education; vocation; culinary arts; horticulture; community development; job placement.

The Power of Work
Source:  The Center for Employment Opportunities and MDRC
Available at: http://www.mdrc.org/sites/default/files/full_572.pdf
Summary:  This report is an overview of the Center for Employment Opportunities (CEO) program.  First, the report discusses the link between unemployment and recidivism. Second, it lays out the “what” of the program: CEO’s company philosophy and the four phases of the CEO program. Then it discusses the “how” of the program: how it came to be, how it appeals to key stakeholders (including government agencies and private employers), and how its financial and organizational structures keep it strong. The document concludes with case studies to illustrate early examples of how CEO’s model is being replicated and adapted for use in other jurisdictions or with other populations.
Keywords:  Organizational structure; program overview; program replication; Center for Employment Opportunities; CEO; transitional jobs; work crews  

Release Planning for Successful Reentry
Source: Urban Institute
Available at: http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/411767_successful_reentry.pdf
Summary: This guide was created to assist corrections agencies and their community partners in creating and improving their prison release planning procedures. This guide may also be useful for prison administrators and staff. The guide describes eight fundamental needs facing individuals exiting prison and how these should be addressed by corrections agencies and their community partners. The guide looks at the different challenges and opportunities that may arise from these eight fundamental needs and gives examples of how they are successfully dealt with in other organizations across the nation. The guide also includes recommendations for policy and laws at the federal and state level that would help improve the prison release system.
Keywords: guide, service providers, release planning, release plan, policy recommendations

Operating Procedure: Re-Entry Planning
Source: Virginia Department of Corrections Public Safety First
Category:
  Integrating Effective Corrections Strategies into the Employment Services
Available at:  http://www.vadoc.virginia.gov/about/procedures/documents/800/820-2.pdf
Summary: This operating procedure provides details about planning transitional and reentry services for prisoners exiting the Department of Corrections facilities. The goal of these plans is to create a smooth transition for everyone involved in the process. While this plan was made specifically for Virginia the ideas can be applied to other state’s systems as well.
Keywords: planning, communities, Virginia, employment plans, housing 

From Prison to Work: The Employment Dimensions of Prisoner Reentry Source: Urban Institute
Available at: http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/411097_From_Prison_to_Work.pdf
Summary:
This report addresses the relationship between work and reentry, outlining the links between employment and variety of post-release outcomes.  Next, the report describes the (pre-recession) labor market, identifying the gap that formerly incarcerated individuals could potentially fill.  The report details the skill sets, education levels, work histories, and health-related needs of formerly incarcerated individuals.  The paper also examines the past and current state of work inside prisons, identifying the possible benefits of inmate labor and prison programming aimed at enhancing post-release employment opportunities. The report then looks at the opportunities for-and the legal barriers to-employment following release. Finally, the document identifies key considerations to meet the goals of enhancing work opportunities available to prisoners and expanding post-release work opportunities.
Keywords: Post-release employment; demographics; work inside prison; legal barriers; policy; research.

Life Skills Education Booklets
Source: Life Skills Education.     
Available at: http://lifeskillsed.com/17/index.html      
Summary:
Targeted toward individuals returning home from incarceration, these easy-to-read resource booklets provide guidance on topics such as rebuilding personal relationships, talking with potential employers about a criminal record, and re-establishing oneself in the community.  An excellent resource for direct service providers.
Keywords:  Rebuilding relationships; money management; finding employment; job search; criminal record; program provider resources.

One in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Source: Pew Center on the States
Available at:
http://www.pewstates.org/uploadedFiles/PCS_Assets/2009/PSPP_1in31_report_FINAL_WEB_3-26-09.pdf
Summary: This paper looks at ways that states can effectively create savings and better use their correctional money.  While the cost of imprisonment is rising and the budget crisis continues to get worse, the authors argue that changes to correction systems need to be made to adjust for these changing economic times. The paper includes case studies of prison systems that have already revamped their system to create financial savings without hurting the system’s ability to be effective.   One of the methods focused on is community corrections, which is described in detail in the paper.
Keywords: public safety, case study, prison spending, crime, community, charts, graphs, community corrections

The National Summit on Justice Reinvestment and Public Safety: Addressing Recidivism, Crime, and Corrections Spending
Source: Council of State Governments Justice Center
Available at:
http://csgjusticecenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/JR_Summit_Report_Final.pdf
Summary: This report summarizes the remarks, research, and case studies highlighted during the 2010 National Summit on Justice Reinvestment and Public Safety. The report is meant to assist practitioners by providing a concise articulation of four key “what works” principles to reduce recidivism and increase public safety. The four areas of focus of this paper are: addressing expensive, unsuccessful, and unsustainable corrections policies; principles for cost-effective policies and programs; case studies of statewide efforts to reduce recidivism and corrections spending; and national resources to fund work in this field.
Keywords: case studies, federal funding, recidivism, cost-effective corrections, policy, Justice Reinvestment Approach, resources

Moving Men into the Mainstream: Best Practices in Prisoner Reentry Assistance
Source: Manhattan Institute
Available at:
http://www.manhattan-institute.org/pdf/cb_51.pdf
Summary: Although it opens with anecdotal, sensationalist descriptions of brutal crimes committed by former prisoners, this brief from the Manhattan Institute goes on to highlight several evidence-based and promising program models for reentry including employment services, mentoring, pre-release services, and parole supervision strategies. The authors offer recommendations for a range of stakeholders including corrections and criminal justice officials.
Keywords: parole, corrections, employment, reentry, best practices

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Correctional Education: A Meta-Analysis of Programs That Provide Education to Incarcerated Adults
Source: RAND Corporation
Available at:  http://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR266.html
Summary: This is a meta-analysis of multiple studies measuring the effectiveness of correctional education programs in the United States. The authors found that inmates who participated in academic or vocational education while incarcerated were substantially less likely to recidivate and more likely to be employed post-release than individuals who did not participate in correctional education. They determined that based on these impacts, correctional education programming is cost-effective and saves public money compared to incarceration.
Keywords: correctional education, basic skills, vocational training, recidivism, employment

Industry-Recognized Certification: A Pathway to Reentry
Source: MTC Institute, Management & Training Corporation
Available at:
http://www.mtctrains.com/public/uploads/1/2011/7/A%20Pathway%20to%20Reentry.pdf
Summary: Industry-recognized certificates are credentials that are developed in partnership with employers to reflect the skills needed for specific occupations. This brief makes the case for offering industry-recognized certification training to inmates in order to improve employment prospects post-release. It offers information on a range of certifications and certifying bodies in several industries, and provides guidance on establishing certification training programs inside correctional institutions
Keywords: training, education, certification, industry sector

Employment Information Handbook
Source: Federal Bureau of Prisons Inmate Transition Branch
Available at: http://www.bop.gov/inmate_programs/emp_info_handbk.pdf
Summary: This handbook provides prisoners with information regarding employment, housing, education, and other areas in which they may need support upon exit from prison. This includes contact information by state for how to obtain important forms of identification. The guide encourages individuals to start planning for their release as early as possible.
Keywords: handbook, jobs programs, identification, employment

Ex-Offender Employment Resources
Source: Federal Bureau of Prisons
Available at: http://www.bop.gov/inmate_programs/itb_references.jsp
Summary: This website provides links to important resources created by the Federal Bureau of Prisons for ex-offender employment. This includes links to different U.S. Departments that may be helpful for a recently released individual who is seeking employment and/or education.
Keywords: resources, education, employment 

Back to School: A Guide to Continuing your Education after Prison
Source: John Jay College of Criminal Justice
Available at: http://www.jjay.cuny.edu/BacktoSchoolSummer2010Revision.pdf
Summary: This guide is created for individuals who want to continue their education upon release from prison. It emphasizes how continued education can lead to more employment opportunities and higher income. The guide gives in-depth advice about the entire education process from setting goals to getting scholarships to pay for college.
Keywords: education, prison, college, GED

Leading Best Practices in US Prisoner Re-entry Employment Programs Source: Safer Foundation
Available at: http://www.saferfoundation.org/files/documents/US-EU%20Delegation%20Extended%20Website%20Presentation.pdf
Summary: After providing a background about the Safer Foundation-an organization committed to reducing recidivism by supporting the efforts of people with criminal records to become employed, law-abiding members of the community-and Illinois incarceration trends, this presentation highlights “what’s working” in reentry, including green job development; social enterprise; and criminal justice diversion programs.

Keywords:  Recidivism; green jobs; social enterprise; diversion programs; criminal justice diversion models; best practices

Program sustainability and evaluation

The long-term viability of any reentry employment initiative depends on its ability to measure and communicate its effectiveness in order to sustain its financial support. These resources have been compiled to help gather data and evaluate program efficacy, provide examples of strong program evaluations, and provide guidance for achieving sustainable program funding.

Funding Transitional Jobs Programs: Identifying Sources and Developing Proposals
Available at: http://www.scribd.com/doc/59497141/Funding-Transitional-Jobs-Programs-Identifying-Sources-and-Developing-Proposals
Summary:  This brief provides tips for identifying public and private sources of funding for transitional jobs programs, and gives guidance for how to write about the transitional jobs model in funding proposals, making the case for transitional jobs in a needs statement, and describing proposed TJ program activities.
Keywords: Funding, proposal

Transitional Jobs Return on Investment Study
Source: Fiscal Policy Institute
Available at: http://fiscalpolicy.org/FPI_TransitionalJobsReturnOnInvestmentStudy.pdf
Summary: This resource analyzes the costs involved in operating a statewide transitional jobs program in New York, then calculates return on investment based on public savings from averted incarcerations and reductions in receipt of public assistance. The author concludes that a statewide TJ program in New York would pay for itself within three years. This is “conservative” estimate that does not include many areas of probable public cost savings such as the child support system and criminal court costs.
Keywords: return on investment, ROI, transitional jobs, cost effectiveness

Innovative City and State Funding Approaches to Supporting Subsidized Employment and Transitional Jobs
Source: National Transitional Jobs Network and CLASP
Available at: http://www.bigideasforjobs.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/2a_Warland-Young-Lower-Basch_Transitional-Jobs-Report.pdf
Summary: This paper provides innovative suggestions and examples for funding transitional jobs programs from cities, states, and other public-sector entities. This guide also includes a discussion on the goals and impacts of transitional jobs programs and how that affects funding.  An appendix offers a list of public funding sources and allowable uses of funds.
Keywords: transitional jobs, funding, block grant, state tax, federal tax, TANF, case studies, bidding opportunities, policy

Alternative Strategies for Funding Employment-Related Reentry Programs            
Source:  Northwestern University School of Law
Available at: http://www.law.northwestern.edu/legalclinic/prison/documents/AlternativeFundingStrategies.pdf Summary:  Government funding alone is insufficient to support employment-related reentry programming on the scale required to increase employment and decrease the likelihood of recidivism.  This paper offers three new strategies for obtaining support for employment-related reentry programs.  These strategies include promoting collaboration, partnership, and cost-sharing with private industry; accessing or leveraging federal, state and local economic development grants; and expanding and enhancing Prison Industries Enhancement (PIE) programs.
Keywords: Prison Industries Enhancement programs; PIE; funding; strategy; sustainability; cost-sharing; collaboration; private industry; grants.

Offender Workforce Development Services Makes an Impact
Source: National Institute of Corrections
Available at: http://static.nicic.gov/Library/025219.pdf
Summary: This evaluation looked specifically at 112 offenders that received offender workforce development (OWD) services in Kansas. The evaluation found that participants of the OWD program had a decreased likelihood of recidivism. The results also showed a positive effect among moderate and high-risk offenders when compared to low-risk offenders. During follow up interviews with participants the authors found that participants believed that the mock job interview was the most helpful part of the program because they were able to directly apply the skills they learned in job interviews.
Keywords: recidivism, workforce development, evaluation, interviews

The Power of Work
Source:  The Center for Employment Opportunities and MDRC
Available at: http://www.mdrc.org/sites/default/files/full_572.pdf
Summary: 
This report is an overview of the Center for Employment Opportunities (CEO) program.  First, the report discusses the link between unemployment and recidivism. Second, it lays out the “what” of the program: CEO’s company philosophy and the four phases of the CEO program. Then it discusses the “how” of the program: how it came to be, how it appeals to key stakeholders (including government agencies and private employers), and how its financial and organizational structures keep it strong. The document concludes with case studies to illustrate early examples of how CEO’s model is being replicated and adapted for use in other jurisdictions or with other populations.
Keywords:  Organizational structure; program overview; program replication; Center for Employment Opportunities; CEO; transitional jobs; work crews.  

Does Re-Entry Turn Tax Takers To Tax Payers?
Source: National Public Radio
Available at: http://www.npr.org/2011/12/08/143353823/does-reentry-turn-tax-takers-to-tax-payers
Summary: In this radio interview, now-former Secretary of Labor Hilda Solis discusses the importance of providing employment opportunities to individuals exiting incarceration. Also interviewed is Jennifer Gaskin, a formerly incarcerated worker who was championed by Secretary Solis as a reentry success story.
Keywords: reentry, success story, Department of Labor

Prisoner Reentry Experiences of Adult Females: Characteristics, Service Receipt, and Outcomes of Participants in the SVORI Multi-Site Evaluation
Source:  RTI International and the Urban Institute
Available at:  https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/230420.pdf           
Summary:
In 2003, the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI) funded agencies to develop programs to improve a range of outcomes for released prisoners.  This evaluation report presents findings from the pre-release and postrelease interviews conducted with high-risk, high-need women in 11 SVORI impact sites.  The evaluation assessed whether SVORI respondents received more services than non-SVORI respondents and examined differences between the groups on a variety of post-release outcomes.  Findings show that SVORI programming appeared to have a positive impact on employment outcomes.  For example, SVORI programming was associated with significant improvements on a variety of employment outcomes, including likelihood of working at all, duration of employment, employment stability, and employment quality.  Drawing from the findings, the report concludes with policy and practice implications for service providers and agencies working with returning female prisoners.
Keywords: Program evaluation; high-risk populations; women; females; impact; policy.

Prisoner Reentry Experiences of Adult Males: Characteristics, Service Receipt, and Outcomes of Participants in the SVORI Multi-site Evaluation      
Source: RTI International and the Urban Institute                   
Available at: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/230419.pdf              
Summary:
  In 2003, the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI) funded agencies to develop programs to improve a range of outcomes for released prisoners.  This evaluation report presents findings from the pre-release and postrelease interviews conducted with high-risk, high-need men in 12 programs selected for the impact evaluation.  The evaluation examined the extent to which SVORI program participation improved access to appropriate, comprehensive, integrated services and resulted in better outcomes. In regard to employment, the report provides evidence that SVORI program participation led to modest increases in employment-related services. Although SVORI program participation appeared to have had little impact on whether someone was working, program participation was associated with modest improvements in several employment related outcomes (e.g., securing better jobs than non-program participants). The report concludes with policy and practice implications for service providers and agencies working with returning male prisoners.
Keywords: Program evaluation; high-risk populations; men; males; impact; policy.

Four Principles of Employment Reentry       
Source: Northwestern University School of Law
Available at:  http://www.law.northwestern.edu/legalclinic/prison/documents/EmploymentReentry.pdf
Summary:  This brief document presents four research- and observation-based principles for developing powerful and successful employment/reentry program models.  A quick, useful resource.    
Keywords:   Program models; principles; private enterprise; diversion; economic development.

Working with special populations

Veterans, women, people with mental illness, people at risk of homelessness, and other groups within the broader reentry population have unique strengths, service needs, and challenges as they return to their communities from incarceration and seek employment. It is critical for successful employment initiatives to understand the needs and leverage the strengths of these populations. These resources highlight some of the special populations that employment programs encounter and offer examples of effective programming.

Prison Re-entry Programs
Source: American Veterans Group
Available at:  http://amvetsgroup.org/prison_reentry_programs.html
Summary:
This website links to several useful sources regarding incarcerated veterans. It includes information on how incarceration affects a veteran’s benefits and different programs to help with healthcare for veterans exiting prison. This website also includes information about the Veteran’s Incarcerated Project that works to help veterans recently released from incarceration.
Keywords: veterans, healthcare, incarceration, outreach initiative

Customized Job Development for Homeless Veterans with Disabilities
Source: Homeless Veterans Reintegration Program
Available at:
 bbi.syr.edu/nvtac/publications/ce/CustomizedJobDevelopment10.pdf
Summary: This fact sheet focuses on Customized Employment (CE) for homeless veterans with disabilities. CE is not a service model or program but rather a process that builds on other means of getting work. CE methods minimize the use of comparative strategies that so often prove the undoing of traditional job development efforts.
Keywords: veterans, homeless, disabilities, customized employment

Employment Assistance Guide for Service Providers Helping Homeless Veterans
Source: National Coalition of Homeless Veterans
Available at: http://www.nchv.org/images/uploads/EAG_1-10.pdf
Summary: This guide was created to serve as a quick reference resource to assist government agencies, community-based organizations, social workers, case managers, and others who are helping veterans experiencing homelessness prepare for and obtain employment.
Keywords: veterans, homeless, mental health, affordable housing, female veterans, health, community partners, employment resources

Sequencing Disadvantage: Barriers to Employment Facing Young Black and White Men with Criminal Records
Source: The Annals of the American Academy
Available at: http://www.communityalternatives.org/pdf/employers/Pager-Barriers-to-Employment.pdf 
Summary: 
This article reports the results of a large-scale field experiment investigating the effects of race and a prison record on employment. Teams of black and white men were matched and sent to apply for low-wage jobs, presenting equivalent résumés and differing only in their race and criminal background. The authors find a significant negative effect of a criminal record on employment outcomes that appears substantially larger for African Americans.  The results suggest that black applicants are less often invited to interview and thus have fewer opportunities to establish rapport with the employer, which appears to be an important aspect of securing work. 
Keywords: Race; criminal record; discrimination; low-wage labor markets; field study.  

Reentry Law Project Small Business Toolkit
Source: City Bar Justice Center
Available at:
http://www2.nycbar.org/citybarjusticecenter/pdf/Reentry_Toolkit_April09.pdf 
Summary:
Targeted toward New York City residents returning from incarceration, this toolkit provides an overview of legal issues that may come up for persons with criminal convictions who want to start a new business or move forward with a business they already have begun.  The toolkit starts with an explanation of the laws that prohibit employment discrimination based on criminal records and provides tips for getting identification documents and applying for certificates of rehabilitation. It then sets out steps for planning and starting a business, and for applying for necessary licenses.  This toolkit provides broadly applicable information about financial literacy and drafting a business plan.
Keywords: New York City; New York; business; entrepreneur; business plan.

In Search of a Job: Criminal Records as Barriers to Employment
Source: NCJRS
Available at: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/238488.pdf
Summary: This paper looks at employer’s opinions of potential hires that have a criminal record and the barriers that these negative opinions create. The author writes about the importance of individuals with past criminal involvement having the opportunity to find employment as a means of leaving criminal activity. In order for this to happen, barriers to employment need to be reduced to bring an end to the cycle of reoffending.
Keywords: employment, reentry, criminal record, employer

Prisoner Reentry Experiences of Adult Females: Characteristics, Service Receipt, and Outcomes of Participants in the SVORI Multi-Site Evaluation
Source:  RTI International and the Urban Institute
Available at:  https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/230420.pdf           
Summary:
In 2003, the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI) funded agencies to develop programs to improve a range of outcomes for released prisoners.  This evaluation report presents findings from the pre-release and post release interviews conducted with high-risk, high-need women in 11 SVORI impact sites.  The evaluation assessed whether SVORI respondents received more services than non-SVORI respondents and examined differences between the groups on a variety of post-release outcomes.  Findings show that SVORI programming appeared to have a positive impact on employment outcomes.  For example, SVORI programming was associated with significant improvements on a variety of employment outcomes, including likelihood of working at all, duration of employment, employment stability, and employment quality.  Drawing from the findings, the report concludes with policy and practice implications for service providers and agencies working with returning female prisoners.
Keywords: Program evaluation; high-risk populations; women; females; impact; policy.

Prisoner Reentry Experiences of Adult Males: Characteristics, Service Receipt, and Outcomes of Participants in the SVORI Multi-site Evaluation      
Source: RTI International and the Urban Institute       
Available at: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/230419.pdf              
Summary:
  In 2003, the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI) funded agencies to develop programs to improve a range of outcomes for released prisoners.  This evaluation report presents findings from the pre-release and postrelease interviews conducted with high-risk, high-need men in 12 programs selected for the impact evaluation.  The evaluation examined the extent to which SVORI program participation improved access to appropriate, comprehensive, integrated services and resulted in better outcomes. In regard to employment, the report provides evidence that SVORI program participation led to modest increases in employment-related services. Although SVORI program participation appeared to have had little impact on whether someone was working, program participation was associated with modest improvements in several employment related outcomes (e.g., securing better jobs than non-program participants). The report concludes with policy and practice implications for service providers and agencies working with returning male prisoners.
Keywords: Program evaluation; high-risk populations; men; males; impact; policy.         

Women, Reentry and Everyday Life: Time to Work?
Source: Women's Prison Association
Available at: http://www.wpaonline.org/pdf/Women%20Reentry%20and%20Everyday%20Life%20-%20Final%20Report.pdf
Summary: Based on interviews, surveys and diaries kept by formerly incarcerated women, this study examines the competing demands for time and attention faced by recently released women and its impact on finding and keeping employment. The authors determine that with effective time management and scheduling, formerly incarcerated women can achieve and sustain employment while meeting obligations to make appointments with parole officers, receive social services, attend sobriety meetings, etc. The paper offers many recommendations and tips for managing schedules and appointments for formerly incarcerated women.
Keywords:  incarcerated women, employment, reentry, time management, parole

Employing Your Mission: Building Cultural Competence in Reentry Service Agencies through the Hiring of Individuals Who Are Formerly Incarcerated and/or in Recovery
Source:
 The Fortune Society; John Jay College of Criminal Justice
Available at: http://www.jjay.cuny.edu/TOOL_KIT_2Employing_Your_MissionFINALLoResEmailable110501.pdf Summary:  Drawing from research and case studies, this four-section toolkit discusses why and how reentry agencies should engage in the "culturally competent" practice of hiring people with histories of incarceration and/or life experiences shared by the reentry population. This toolkit offers promising practices and lessons learned about how to develop a culturally competent workforce in a reentry agency.    
Keywords: Cultural competence; case study; hiring; toolkit.