Confined and Costly

How Supervision Violations are Filling Prisons and Burdening Budgets

Supervision Violation Data Snapshot

Probation and parole are designed to lower prison populations and help people succeed in the community. New data show they are having the opposite effect. Until now, national data regarding the impact of probation violations on prison populations have been unavailable, resulting in a lopsided focus on parole. The Council of State Governments (CSG) Justice Center recently engaged corrections and community supervision leaders in 50 states to develop the first complete picture of how probation and…

How Supervision Violations are Filling Prisons and Burdening Budgets
The Council of State Governments Justice Center | June 18, 2019 |

Supervision Violation Data Snapshot

Probation and parole are designed to lower prison populations and help people succeed in the community. New data show they are having the opposite effect. Until now, national data regarding the impact of probation violations on prison populations have been unavailable, resulting in a lopsided focus on parole. The Council of State Governments (CSG) Justice Center recently engaged corrections and community supervision leaders in 50 states to develop the first complete picture of how probation and parole violations make up states’ prison populations.

This snapshot shows available supervision violation data for this state.

of prison admissions are for supervision violations

of people in prison are incarcerated for supervision violations

* Whether an incarceration is the result of a new offense or technical violation is often difficult and problematic to delineate, even in states with available data. Most states do not consider a supervision violation to be the result of a new offense unless a new felony conviction is present, meaning technical violations may include misdemeanor convictions or new arrests.

On any given day in , people are incarcerated as a result of a supervision violation at an annual cost to the state of $. Technical supervision violations account for $ of this total amount, and new offense supervision violations make up $. These figures do not account for the substantial local costs of keeping people in jail for supervision violations.

Data Alert

This state was not able to provide the following data at the time of data collection.

Additional State Notes

For more information, see our methodology.

For more information, see our methodology.

1 Whether an incarceration is the result of a new offense or technical violation is often difficult and problematic to delineate, even in states with available data. Most states do not consider a supervision violation to be the result of a new offense unless a new felony conviction is present, meaning technical violations may include misdemeanor convictions or new arrests. "Prison" includes county jail if the county was reimbursed by the state for a person’s incarceration, which occurs in some, but not all, states. Supervision violations may include revocations (i.e., unsuccessful terminations of a supervision and completion of a sentence in prison or jail) or short-term sanctions (i.e., probation or parole jurisdiction is maintained and the person is incarcerated for a short period of time in prison or jail). Not all states impose or include short-term sanctions in their count of supervision violations. See state-specific snapshots for more information on state-specific definitions. In states where technical violations were not provided, all violations and associated costs were counted as new offense violations.

2 Illinois, Maryland, Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania include only parole/post-release supervision violations, and Delaware, Oklahoma, and West Virginia include only probation violations.

3 Data reflects annual admissions for 2017 except in Virginia, where 2016 was the latest year available. Tennessee did not provide the number of new offense supervision violations as these are counted as non-violation admissions. Ohio counts new offense probation violations as non-violation admissions. Technical breakdown was only included if both the total number and technical number of violations were provided for probation and/or parole/post-release supervision.

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