Motivation for change is a key component in addressing substance misuse. This Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration is an update from the original (1991) and updated (2002) work. The publication about the TIP reflects a fundamental rethinking of the concept of motivation as a dynamic process, not a static client trait. Motivation relates to the probability that a person will enter into, continue, and adhere to a specific change strategy. This TIP shows how substance addiction treatment counselors—including those working with people who have been required to attend counseling as a condition of parole—can influence positive behavior change by developing a therapeutic relationship that respects and builds on the client’s autonomy. Through motivational enhancement, counselors become partners in the client’s change process.