National Inventory of Collateral Consequences of Conviction

An online database cataloguing all 40,000-plus collateral consequences in the U.S.

Collateral consequences are legal and regulatory restrictions that limit or prohibit people convicted of crimes from accessing employment, business and occupational licensing, housing, voting, education, and other opportunities. The National Inventory of Collateral Consequences of Conviction identifies and categorizes the statutes and regulations that impose collateral consequences in all 50 states, the federal system, and the District of Columbia, U.S. Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico.

In many states, a criminal record is a stain that you can’t wash off. There is no amount of studying that can take away this mark in your past if a licensing board wants to use it against you.
Stephen Slivinski
Economist, Center for the Study of Economic Liberty at Arizona State University

Key Staff

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Chidi Umez
Project Manager, Corrections and Reentry
Chidi Umez oversees the Clean Slate Clearinghouse and the National Inventory of Collateral Consequences for the employment team. Chidi previously provided training and technical assistance to Second Chance Act grantees that utilized adult mentors in their reentry programs. Prior to
joining the Justice Center, she served as a Court Attorney in the New York Civil Supreme Court and as an indigent defense attorney in Harris County, TX. She received a BA in English and corporate communications from University of Houston, and a JD from Texas Southern University, Thurgood Marshall School of Law.
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    Joshua Gaines
    Senior Policy Analyst, Corrections and Reentry
    Josh Gaines focuses on issues involving the collateral consequences of criminal conviction, barriers to work, and relief from the long-term impacts of a criminal record. He previously served as the deputy director of the Collateral Consequences Resource Center, worked extensively
    on the Restoration of Rights Project, and provided counsel for federal pardon applicants. Josh received his BA in sociology from North Carolina State University and his JD from the Washington College of Law at American University.
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