COVID-19 Assistance for the Justice Community

Illustration of people wearing protective masksThe ever-changing nature of the COVID-19 pandemic requires policymakers and criminal justice practitioners to rapidly adapt their day-to-day operations to the situation at hand. While the pace and scale of the crisis can be overwhelming, the CSG Justice Center is committed more than ever to supporting its members—state and local officials working in all three branches of government in criminal and juvenile justice, behavioral health, housing, and labor.

Pennsylvania Initiatives

In partnership with Pennsylvania state leaders, the CSG Justice Center is working on several key criminal justice initiatives to increase public safety, including Stepping Up and Justice Reinvestment.

Justice Reinvestment in Pennsylvania

In 2015, Pennsylvania embarked on a justice reinvestment approach to further reduce its prison population and corrections costs–building on successes the state experienced after taking the same data-driven approach in 2012.


In 2012, Pennsylvania employed a data-driven justice reinvestment approach to reduce corrections spending and reinvest savings in strategies to improve public safety. Following this effort, the General Assembly voted unanimously to enact legislation based on a justice reinvestment policy framework (Act 122 and Act 196), and as a result of these and other policy reforms, Pennsylvania has experienced a decrease in its state prison population and averted significant corrections costs.

Despite the declining prison population and averted corrections costs, however, Pennsylvania has the highest rate of incarcerated adults in the Northeast and there are approximately 50,000 people incarcerated in state prison, which cost the state more than $2 billion annually. People on supervision who recidivate account for a portion of this cost, with nearly one-third of prison beds occupied by people who have violated the conditions of their probation or parole. Insufficient county probation resources and inefficient use of parole resources limit the effectiveness of supervision and exacerbate recidivism.

To build on prior efforts and address current challenges related to costs, supervision, and recidivism, state leaders again embarked on a justice reinvestment approach in 2015 with intensive technical assistance from The Council of State Governments (CSG) Justice Center and support from The Pew Charitable Trusts and the U.S. Department of Justice’s Bureau of Justice Assistance.

The Pennsylvania Justice Reinvestment Working Group—which included stakeholders from all three branches of government—worked with CSG Justice Center staff to review analyses and develop policy options that will (1) realize savings by addressing ineffective short state prison sentences, (2) invest in more effective county probation to hold people accountable, and (3) improve pretrial and sentencing policies to further reduce recidivism. By adopting these proposed policies, Pennsylvania is projected to reduce the state prison population by 1,032 people and avert at least $108 million in corrections costs between FY2018 and FY2022. This will enable the state to reinvest savings in strategies to improve public safety, including strengthening probation and parole supervision and increasing funding for programs that have been shown to reduce recidivism.

In December 2016, the Justice Reinvestment Working Group voted unanimously to support the policies detailed in the justice reinvestment policy framework and to include them in legislation that the General Assembly will consider in 2017.

  • Justice Reinvestment in Pennsylvania: Overview (February 18, 2016): The Justice Reinvestment in Pennsylvania Overview highlights recent criminal justice trends in the state that Pennsylvania’s Justice Reinvestment Working Group and CSG Justice Center staff will be exploring in coming months as part of the state’s justice reinvestment efforts.

Justice Reinvestment (since 2015)

  • Justice Reinvestment in Pennsylvania: First Presentation (March 9, 2016): The first presentation to the Pennsylvania Justice Reinvestment Initiative Working Group focuses on an analysis of the state’s sentencing policy and practices, and their impact on county and state incarceration and community supervision.
  • Justice Reinvestment in Pennsylvania: Second Presentation (May 18, 2016): The second presentation to the Pennsylvania Justice Reinvestment Initiative Working Group focuses on front-end drivers of the state’s criminal justice system, the impact of sentencing choices, and ways to strengthen community supervision.
  • Justice Reinvestment in Pennsylvania: Third Presentation (July 26, 2016): The third presentation to the Pennsylvania Justice Reinvestment Initiative Working Group focuses on the lack of state support for local criminal justice systems, insufficient sentencing guidance, and costly responses to probation and parole violations.
  • Justice Reinvestment in Pennsylvania: Fourth Presentation (September 19, 2016): The fourth presentation to the Pennsylvania Justice Reinvestment Initiative Working Group focuses on prioritizing recidivism reduction and understanding sentencing choices and outcomes as well as potential policy options.
  • Justice Reinvestment in Pennsylvania: Fifth Presentation (December 15, 2016): The fifth presentation to the Pennsylvania Justice Reinvestment Initiative Working Group summarizes criminal justice challenges, highlights key goals, and details policy proposals.

Justice Reinvestment Archive Publications (2012-2013)

Final Report
  • Justice Reinvestment in Pennsylvania: Policy Framework (June 26, 2017): The final report of the CSG Justice Center outlines policy recommendations developed in collaboration with the Pennsylvania Justice Reinvestment Working Group to reduce release delays for people serving short sentences in state prison and focus state attention on improving county probation, among other things. By adopting these proposed policies, Pennsylvania will be able to reinvest savings into strengthening supervision.
Pennsylvania News

You might also be interested in

Explainer: The Significance of Kansas’s Justice Reinvestment Legislation

The Kansas legislature recently enacted a package of bipartisan criminal justice bills designed to increase public safety and…

Read More

President Biden’s Proposed Budget Advances Key Safety and Justice Priorities

On May 28, 2021, President Biden released his full Fiscal Year 2022 budget, building on his discretionary spending…

Read More