On the heels of new data showing massive reductions in the number of youth incarcerated, representatives from all 50 states met Monday, Nov. 9, to tackle the next big challenge: making sure supervision and services provided in the community reduce the likelihood youth will be rearrested and end up in the adult criminal justice system.
Juvenile Justice Project
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The report, “Locked Out: Improving Educational and Vocational Outcomes for Incarcerated Youth,” reveals that despite spending between $100,000 and $300,000 per incarcerated child in secure facilities, only 13 states provide all incarcerated youth with access to the same types of educational services that students have in the community. Meanwhile, only nine states offer community-equivalent vocational services to all kids in lock-up.
North Carolina, Virginia, and Iowa have been chosen by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) to receive more than $700,000 each to improve the juvenile justice systems in their respective jurisdictions as part of the FY2015 Second Chance Act Comprehensive Statewide Juvenile Reentry System Reform Implementation Program.
The last two decades have produced remarkable changes in state and local juvenile justice systems. An overwhelming body of research has emerged, demonstrating that using secure facilities as a primary response to youth’s delinquent behavior generally produces poor outcomes at high costs. Drawing on this evidence, the MacArthur Foundation’s Models for Change and the Annie E. Casey Foundation’s Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative have provided the field with models for reform, research-based guidance, and technical assistance that has transformed many state and local juvenile justice systems. In part due to these efforts, between 1997 and 2011, youth confinement rates declined by almost 50 percent. During the same time period, arrests of juveniles for violent crimes also fell by approximately 50 percent, to their lowest level in over 30 years.
The importance and value of these achievements can’t be overstated. At the same time, these trends alone are not sufficient for policymakers to assess the effectiveness of their state and local governments’ juvenile justice systems. They must also know whether youth diverted from confinement, as well as youth who return to their communities after confinement, have subsequent contact with the justice system. In addition to recidivism data, policymakers should have information about what services, supports, and opportunities young people under system supervision need, whether these needs are being met, and to what extent these young people are succeeding as a result.
The Justice Center’s Juvenile Justice Project was developed to provide guidance and support to state and local officials and other key stakeholders on what works to promote successful reentry for those youth who are under juvenile justice system supervision. The project website provides access to the latest research and recommendations for reducing recidivism and improving outcomes for youth in the juvenile justice system:
- Core Principles for Reducing Recidivism and Improving Other Outcomes for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System: This white paper distills and synthesizes the research on what works to reduce recidivism and improve outcomes for youth in the juvenile justice system into four core principles; details lessons learned from research and practice on how to implement the principles effectively; and provides examples of how state and local juvenile justice systems have operationalized the principles in practice.
- Measuring and Using Juvenile Recidivism Data to Inform Policy, Practice, and Resource Allocation: This issue brief highlights findings from a recent survey of the recidivism data collection practices of all 50 state juvenile correctional agencies and provides state and local policymakers with five recommendations for improving their approaches to the measurement, analysis, collection, reporting, and use of recidivism data for youth involved with the juvenile justice system.
- The Juvenile Justice Project also encompasses the Justice Center’s ongoing delivery of training and technical assistance—through the National Reentry Resource Center—to state and local juvenile justice systems that receive grant funding through the Second Chance Act (SCA). The Justice Center is also the technical assistance provider for the U.S. Department of Justice’s Justice and Mental Health Collaboration Program (JMHCP). To support SCA grantees, the Justice Center runs the the National Reentry Resource Center (NRRC). For more information and resources related to “what works” to improve youth reentry and overall juvenile justice outcomes, please visit the Juvenile Justice Reentry page. To learn more about youth mental health issues, please visit the Mental Health page. To learn more about youth substance use issues, please visit the Substance Abuse page.
The Juvenile Justice Project: Looking Ahead
With the support of the MacArthur Foundation, the Justice Center is engaged in two pilot projects to apply the research and recommendations offered in the white paper and issue brief to help five state correctional agencies reduce recidivism and improve other outcomes for youth:
- The “Positioning Juvenile Justice Systems to Track Youth Outcomes Pilot Project” will help position policymakers and state juvenile correctional agencies to track and better measure, analyze, share, and use data on a priority set of recidivism and other youth outcomes to inform system policy, practice, and funding.
- The “Improving Outcomes for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System Pilot Project” will engage state juvenile justice agencies in a comprehensive assessment of to what extent they have adopted and are effectively implementing the core principles needed to reduce recidivism and improve other youth outcomes, and help them to develop and begin to advance an action plan to address priority reform needs.
The Justice Center’s work in the area of juvenile justice builds upon research pioneered and supported by key partners, including the Annie E. Casey Foundation’s Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation’s Models for Change Initiative, Georgetown University’s Center on Juvenile Justice Reform, the Council of Juvenile Correctional Administrators, the National Center for Mental Health and Juvenile Justice, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, and others. This Project is supported by the U.S. Department of Justice and the MacArthur Foundation.
During this webinar, FY2015 Second Chance Act grantees that are developing and implementing juvenile reentry initiatives hear from U.S. Department of Justice’s Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention staff about the Second Chance Act, including grant requirements and management.
In this webinar panelists share with participants the most recent research on how to reduce recidivism and improve outcomes for juveniles who have committed sexual offenses, and provide a practical example of how the Illinois Juvenile Justice Commission is working to achieve these goals.
The webinar is for 2014 Second Chance Act grantees that are developing a comprehensive reentry strategy to reduce recidivism and improve other outcomes for youth under system supervision.
This guidance from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention provides an overview of issues concerning girls in the juvenile justice system, a well as information on how states, tribes, and local communities can improve their responses to girls and young women who are in, or at-risk of entering the system.
Today, states are re-examining their policies to produce more effective responses to youth crime and improve overall justice systems. This report from the National Conference of State Legislatures examines these state efforts and other recent trends in juvenile justice legislation across country.
While the prevalence of behavioral health disorders decreases over time among youth after their release from juvenile detention, a substantial proportion of this population continue to have disorders, according to a bulletin from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Some of the educational programs missed out by the locked up youths include credit recovery courses, vocational certifications as well as GED prep. These youths are not prepared well enough for college as well as to their career.
Since Connecticut’s initial “Raise the Age” effort in 2007, which changed state law to treat 16 and 17-year-olds as juveniles, Connecticut’s prison population has dropped to its lowest level in 17 years with 4,000 fewer inmates than in 2008 – a 20 percent decrease. As such, the Governor launched a conversation on raising the age of the juvenile justice system’s jurisdiction through age 20.
Videos of a classroom arrest that quickly went viral have put a spotlight on the proliferation of armed, uniformed officers in schools. The officers, often known as school resource officers, have become commonplace around the country, with tens of thousands of them deployed in elementary to high schools.