In 2014, Alabama had the most crowded prison system in the nation, operating at 195 percent of capacity. In addition, two-thirds of the nearly 80,000 people convicted of felonies and under correctional control were supervised in Alabama’s overwhelmed probation and parole systems, where caseloads averaged close to 200 cases per officer.
In 2007, Arizona’s prison population was projected to increase 50 percent within 10 years, twice the projected growth rate of the resident population. Probation revocations, which were often a result of drug and alcohol use, represented a third of prison admissions, costing the state an estimated $100 million annually.
Since 2012, Georgia has adopted innovative policies to improve the state’s criminal justice system by diverting some people from prison while still holding them accountable, prioritizing prison space for people convicted of the most serious and violent offenses, and expanding accountability courts.
Hawaii’s prison and jail populations grew 18 percent between FY2000 and FY2010. Due to a lack of space in its correctional facilities,Hawaii contracted with mainland facilities to house approximately one-third of its prisoners.
In 2012, Idaho’s crime rate was among the lowest in the nation, but recidivism had increased between FY2008 and FY2012. Idaho’s prison population was projected to increase 16 percent between FY2014 and FY2019. From 2013 to 2014, the CSG Justice Center worked with Idaho state leaders to develop data-driven policy options designed to reduce spending on corrections and increase public safety.
In 2010, Indiana’s prison population was projected to increase 21 percent by 2017, from 28,474 to 34,794 people, at a cost of approximately $1.2 billion in construction and annual operations costs.
Between 2009 and 2012, the number of people in Kansas’s prisons increased by almost 9 percent and was projected to increase by an additional 23 percent by 2021. Accommodating this growth would cost at least $81 million in prison construction and operating costs.
In Michigan, one of every five state dollars is spent on corrections. While policymakers look for ways to contain the high costs of corrections, victims, law enforcement, and prosecutors have urged caution against letting fiscal concerns trump efforts to reduce crime and protect the public.
Montana’s prisons are at capacity due to an 11-percent increase in the prison population between FY2008 and FY2015. The prison population is projected to continue to grow 13 percent by FY2023, requiring at least $51 million in new spending.
In 2007, Nevada’s prison population was projected to grow 61 percent by 2017. High failure rates among people on probation contributed to the growth in prison admissions. Community-based behavioral health treatment was often unavailable or inaccessible for people involved with the criminal justice system.
Despite having a low and stable crime rate, between 1999 and 2009, New Hampshire’s prison population had increased 31 percent, and annual state spending on corrections had doubled to more than $100 million.
Unlike many states across the country, New Mexico has seen steady growth in its prison population in recent years. Unless action is taken to curb this trend, the prison population is projected to increase 9 percent by fiscal year (FY) 2024.
In 2010, North Carolina’s prison population was projected to grow by 10 percent over the coming decade. At the time, probation revocations accounted for more than half of prison admissions, and only about 15 percent of people released from prison were receiving supervision.
Over the past decade, the number of people in North Dakota’s prisons and jails, on probation, and on parole has increased, and the state and county governments have spent tens of millions of dollars expanding the capacity of existing correctional facilities and building new facilities to accommodate this growth.
In 2017, The CSG Justice Center embarked on a Justice Reinvestment approach in Ohio to help state leaders identify and address the most pressing criminal justice and behavioral health system challenges.
In 2010, Oklahoma’s violent crime rate was high and had remained relatively unchanged since 2000. Further, more than half of people leaving prison were released without supervision.
In 2015, the Rhode Island Department of Corrections projected that after years of steady decline, the state’s incarcerated population would grow 11 percent by FY2025, at an estimated cost to the state of $28 million dollars in additional operating and staffing costs.
In 2007, Texas was projected to need 17,000 additional prison beds by 2012, at an expected cost of $2 billion. Between 1997 and 2006, the number of people revoked to prison from probation increased 18 percent.
Washington has the highest reported property crime rate in the nation. People convicted of property offenses have a high likelihood of committing a new crime, yet Washington is the only state in the country where supervision is not available as a sentence for most people convicted of property offenses, despite the significant impact supervision can have on reducing the likelihood of reoffending.
Between 2002 and 2012, the number of people in West Virginia’s prisons increased 50 percent, with the prison population projected to grow an additional 24 percent by 2018. From 2012 to 2013, the CSG Justice Center worked with state leaders in West Virginia to develop data-driven policy options designed to reduce corrections spending and increase public safety.
In 2008, Wisconsin’s prison population was expected to rise 25 percent over the coming decade, at a cost of $2.5 billion in new prison construction and operating expenses. More than half of the people in state prison were there because they had failed to comply with the conditions of their supervision or because they had committed a new crime while under supervision.