Justice Reinvestment in Montana
In 2015, Montana’s prisons were at capacity due to an 11 percent increase in the prison population between 2008 and 2015. The prison population was projected to continue to grow 13 percent by 2023, requiring at least $51 million in new spending. Additionally, the statewide jail population rose 69 percent between 2011 and 2013 and many jails were over capacity.
To address these challenges, state leaders requested intensive technical assistance from the CSG Justice Center in 2015 to use a Justice Reinvestment approach to assist the state with developing data-driven policy options designed to reduce the prison population, contain corrections spending, and reinvest in strategies that can reduce recidivism and increase public safety.
The Montana Commission on Sentencing—which includes commissioners from all three branches of government, policymakers, and other stakeholders—met multiple times between September 2015 and October 2016 to review analyses and develop policy options to ease capacity issues and reduce recidivism. Of 12 bills recommended by the Commission on Sentencing, Montana enacted 9 pieces of legislation. Senate Bills 59, 60, 62, 63, 64, 65, 67, and Senate Resolution 3, sponsored by Senator Cynthia Wolken, and House Bill 133, sponsored by Representative Nate McConnell, codify the Justice Reinvestment policy framework developed by the Commission on Sentencing.
Signed into law in the spring of 2017 by Governor Steve Bullock, these policies limit the period of incarceration for people sanctioned for low-level violations of the terms of their supervision, prioritize supervision resources for people who are most likely to reoffend, and help counties reduce jail populations. By adopting these policies, the state will avert at least $69 million in spending on contract beds and supervision staff and hundreds of millions more that would have been necessary to build new correctional facilities between 2018 and 2023. Montana will be able to reinvest those savings in strategies designed to reduce recidivism and increase public safety.
The legislature appropriated $2.97 million as an up-front reinvestment to develop a pretrial grant program, hire additional supervision officers to conduct presentence investigations, transition the parole board to full-time members, and develop a supportive housing grant program. The CSG Justice Center provided implementation assistance by offering guidance and training to transition the parole board from a part-time volunteer board to a full-time professional board. Additionally, CSG Justice Center staff provided the DOC with guidance and training to incorporate a risk and need assessment into pre-sentence investigations, develop a behavior management system to address incentives and sanctions, and create a program evaluation process. As of February 2019, revocations to prison had fallen 18 percent, while the supervision population grew almost 7 percent during the same year, and an increasing number of people were completing supervision successfully.