Module 7: Facilitating the Success of Mental Health Court Participants
Module 7: Facilitating the Success of Mental Health Court Participants provides suggestions for mental health court team members for monitoring and interacting with program participants to increase their likelihood of meeting program requirements and progressing toward recovery.
- Articulate principles that research shows are effective in modifying behavior
- Describe how these principles inform your role on the mental health court team
- Develop policies and procedures that apply these principles to your mental health court
Reinforces your knowledge of the concepts you learned in the module. You will need access to a computer to complete this step. Estimated completion time: 10 minutes
7.1 Which of the following team members should learn about the research on modifying an individual’s behavior to facilitate participants’ success? Check all that apply.
7.2 True or False: Procedural justice has been shown to positively affect individuals’ perceptions of the justice system – even when judges’ decisions are counter to the individuals’ interests.
7.3 True or False: Balancing equal parts of positive encouragement and strict penalties has been shown to dramatically change the behavior of individuals under community supervision.
7.4 In which of the following ways could a new mental health court develop “incentives and sanctions?” Check all that apply.
7.5 Why are mental health courts hesitant to use jail as a sanction? Check all that apply.
7.1 Correct answer: a, b, c, d, e, and f. All team members may have an impact on participants’ success and could benefit from awareness of current research on behavior modification.
7.2 Correct answer: True. Procedural justice is a term for the level of fairness, reason, and transparency involved in the process of decision-making. Initial research shows promising results that the perception of justice, or fair treatment, may contribute to positive outcomes among mental health court participants.
7.3 Correct answer: False. Research has shown that maximum behavioral change is achieved when forms of negative reinforcement such as strict penalties are outweighed by forms of positive encouragement in a ratio of 4 to 1.
7.4 Correct answer: a, b, and d. The Additional Resources section of this module lists several useful case planning resources (a). In addition to working directly with participants, team members may also use focus groups to help assess what participants are likely to perceive to be rewards and punishments (b). Incentives and sanctions should be tailored to individual participants (d).
7.5 Correct answer: a, b, and c.Incarceration may increase an individual’s level of anxiety (a), incur large costs (b), and/or sever or hinder his/her relationships in the community (c).
These videos feature members of the Bonneville County (ID) Mental Health Court team, a real mental health court team and a Bureau of Justice Assistance Mental Health Court Learning Site, engaging in simulated team meetings and discussing hypothetical program participants. Other videos feature hypothetical program participants making simulated court appearances. The Bonneville team is not shown as a “model;” for example, some may note the absence of a defense attorney at team meetings. Rather, the Bonneville team represents real people facing real challenges in a mental health court setting.
Additional Resources Policy and Practice Guides
“A Handbook for Developing a Mental Health Court Docket.” The Supreme Court of Ohio and the Ohio Judicial System. n.d. Available at: http://www.supremecourt.ohio.gov/JCS/specDockets/MHCourts/handbook.asp (accessed September 8, 2012)
This handbook offers an overview of contingency management and responses to engage program participants. Page 37 describes a range of responses commonly used by mental health court dockets to applaud adaptive behavior.
Bogue, Bradford, and Anjali Nandi. Motivational Interviewing in Corrections: A Comprehensive Guide to Implementing MI in Corrections. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Corrections, 2012. Available at: http://static.nicic.gov/Library/025556.pdf
Bogue, Bradford, and Anjali Nandi. Exercises for Developing MI Skills in Corrections. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Corrections, 2012. Available at: http://static.nicic.gov/Library/025557.pdf
These guides provide an overview for correctional treatment staff of motivational interviewing (MI)—a counseling technique used to change maladaptive behavior—and exercises to practice and improve MI technique.
Callahan, Lisa, and Heathcote W. Wales. “Mental Health Courts Research Roundup: Applying Research to Practice.” Available at: http://www.consensusproject.org/features/webinar-archive-mental-health-courts-research-roundup-applying-research-to-practice (accessed May 9, 2013).
This March 2013 webinar provides an overview of emerging research on mental health courts and its implications for selecting target populations, collecting data, sustaining programs, and more.
Council of State Governments Justice Center. A Guide to Mental Health Court Design and Implementation. New York, NY: Council of State Governments Justice Center, 2008. See esp. Step III, page 72, “Rewarding adherence.” Available at: http://consensusproject.org/jc_publications/guide-to-mental-health-court-implementation/Guide-MHC-Design.pdf
Page 72 of this guide provides mental health court practitioners with advice and techniques to reward adherence and facilitate participants’ success.
Marlowe, Douglas B., and William G. Meyer, eds. The Drug Court Judicial Benchbook. Alexandria, VA: National Drug Court Institute, 2011. See esp. Chapter 7, Section XII, “Noncompliance vs. Nonresponsiveness.” Available at: http://www.ndci.org/sites/default/files/nadcp/14146_NDCI_Benchbook_v6.pdf
This guide (Chapter 7, Section XII) presents scenarios of noncompliance and non-responsiveness among drug court participants, along with appropriate responses.
National Association of Counties. Reentry for Safe Communities. Washington, DC: National Association of Counties and The Bureau of Justice Assistance, 2008. Available at: http://www.naco.org/programs/csd/Pages/JailDiversion.aspx
This report highlights six county programs recognized for innovative and collaborative approaches to transition planning from jail for individuals with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders.
Bloom, Barbara, Barbara Owen, and Stephanie Covington. Gender-Responsive Strategies: Research, Practice, and Guiding Principles for Women Offenders. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Corrections, 2002. Available at: http://nicic.gov/library/018017
This publication offers criminal justice and behavioral health practitioners guidance on gender-responsive treatment options and interventions for female offenders.
Bonneville County Mental Health Court. “Contingency Management Plan,” 2014. Available at: http://csgjusticecenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Contingency-Management-Plan-for-Participant.pdf (accessed April 30, 2014)
This document is a de-identified example of a Contingency Management Plan developed by the Bonneville County Mental Health Court team for use with a program participant.
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Enhancing Motivation for Change in Substance Abuse Treatment Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series, No. 35. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US), 1999. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64967/
This publication identifies ways clinicians can encourage change among clients with substance use disorders.
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Treatment Drug Courts: Integrating Substance Abuse Treatment with Legal Case Processing Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series, No. 23. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US), 1996. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64447/
This publication gives an overview of integrated substance abuse treatment options during the pretrial phase.
Chatham-Savannah Mental Health Court. “Treatment Phases for Chatham-Savannah Mental Health Court,” 2008. Available at: http://csgjusticecenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Example-of-Program-Treatment-Phases-Chatham-Savannah-Mental-Health-Court.pdf
This document is an example of the treatment phases used by the Chatham-Savannah Mental Health Court program. Note that both treatment and supervision goals are included for each phase.
Evidence-Based Sentencing Practices to Reduce Recidivism: Excerpts from the Risk-Based Progressive Sanctions and Incentives Model in Travis County. Williamsburg, VA: National Center for State Courts, 2008. Available at: http://www.ncsconline.org/csi/education_Curriculum/Handout%203.3%20Travis%20County%20Progressive%20Sanctions.pdf
The Travis County Adult Probation Department uses the Risk-Based Progressive Sanctions Model, in which offenders’ risk level guides responses to technical violations.
“Prize-Based Incentive Contingency Management for Substance Abusers.” Office of Justice Programs, Crime Solutions.gov. n.d. http://www.crimesolutions.gov/ProgramDetails.aspx?ID=103 (accessed September 10, 2012)
An evidence-based program, Prize-Based Incentive Contingency Management for Substance Abusers uses contingency management and operant conditioning to encourage abstinence from drug abuse.
Superior Court of California County of San Francisco. “Behavioral Health Court Policies and Procedures Manual.” The Bar Association of San Francisco. 2008. Available at: http://www.sfbar.org/forms/lawyerreferrals/ida/BHC_manual.pdf (accessed September 8, 2012)
This manual details the range of responses used by San Francisco’s Behavioral Health Court to engage participants and facilitate their success.