Justice Reinvestment in Vermont

In 2019, the CSG Justice Center embarked on a Justice Reinvestment approach in Vermont to help state leaders identify and address the most pressing criminal justice system challenges.

Between 2007 and 2008, Vermont first used a data-driven Justice Reinvestment approach to address the state’s rising prison population, reduce corrections spending, and reinvest savings in strategies to improve public safety. As a result of this effort, Vermont passed Justice Reinvestment legislation in 2008, which improved screening and assessment for behavioral health treatment needs, increased access to community-based substance addiction treatment programs, focused supervision resources on people most likely to reoffend, and expanded transitional housing opportunities and job training programs.

Between 2009 and 2013, the state reinvested $6.3 million in transitional housing, electronic monitoring, and substance addiction treatment in prisons and in the community. Vermont’s incarcerated population fell 16 percent between FY2008 and FY2018, from 2,053 to 1,724.

Despite these successes, however, there are a number of key issues that the state continues to grapple with. The state’s pretrial population increased 30 percent between 2008 and 2018, and prison facilities are operating 138 percent above their design capacity. Between 2007 and 2017, all categories of violent crime increased 33 percent, representing a modest growth in the volume of these crimes but a noticeable trend across the state. Although 80 percent of the total population under state correctional control is on probation or parole, the state is currently unable to identify certain key data, including how many people on probation are revoked to jail or prison, what types of violations people are revoked for, and their length of stay when they return. Finally, the state’s drug overdose death rate increased 115 percent—from 10.8 deaths per 100,000 residents to 23.2 deaths—between 2007 and 2017, which indicates a need for behavioral health treatment and other social supports, including medication assisted treatment for people in the criminal justice system.

To build on prior efforts and address these current challenges, state leaders again embarked on a Justice Reinvestment approach in the summer of 2019 with intensive technical assistance from The Council of State Governments (CSG) Justice Center and support from The Pew Charitable Trusts and the U.S. Department of Justice’s Bureau of Justice Assistance.

As a result of Justice Reinvestment, Governor Phil Scott signed a bipartisan criminal justice bill in July 2020—S.338—aimed at reducing Vermont’s high recidivism rates by restructuring the state’s approach to community supervision, while also launching a focused effort to examine racial disparities in sentencing and in Vermont’s prisons. Under the new bill, parole eligibility will expand to include a system of presumptive parole, the furlough system will be streamlined, and new reporting related to sentencing and demographics will be required, among other measures.

Justice Reinvestment will help identify ways to leverage and elevate Vermont's use of data.
Vermont State Senator Richard Sears

Key Staff


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Ellen Whelan-Wuest
Program Director, State Initiatives
Ellen Whelan-Wuest provides policy research, analysis, and technical assistance to states going through the justice reinvestment process. Previously, she worked for the county manager in Durham, North Carolina, where she served on the Criminal Justice Advisory Committee and researched issues
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relating to medical care costs for the county jail system and the youth home detention facility. Ellen also worked as the Brooklyn director for a New York State Senator, and as a special assistant to the state director for a U.S. Senator in Chicago. Ellen holds a BA in Latin American history and sociology from Middlebury College, and an MA in public policy from Duke University.
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    Jackie Salvi
    Senior Policy Analyst, State Initiatives
    Jackie Salvi provides policy research, analysis, and technical assistance in Phase I for states undergoing justice reinvestment. Prior to joining the CSG Justice center, she spent over a decade working at local and state prosecutors’ offices in California. At the
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    San Joaquin County District Attorney’s Office, she established and led a restitution unit, serving as a resource for staff attorneys, crime victims and the California Victims of Crime and Government Claims Board. Most recently, at the California Attorney General’s Office she worked as a Senior Legal Analyst on the trial team prosecuting high profile public corruption, white collar crime and major sex trafficking cases throughout the state. Jackie earned her Bachelor of Science degree from Humphrey’s University and Master of Public Administration from University of the Pacific, McGeorge School of Law.
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